Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems – A Systematic Literature Review

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Many organizations are now starting to introduce crowdsourcing as a new model of business to outsource tasks, which are traditionally performed by a small group of people, to an undefined large workforce. While the utilization of crowdsourcing offers a lot of advantages, the development of the required system carries some risks, which are reduced by establishing a profound theo-retical foundation. Thus, this article strives to gain a better understanding of what crowdsourcing systems are and what typical design aspects are considered in the development of such systems. In this paper, the author conducted a sys-tematic literature review in the domain of crowdsourcing systems. As a result, 17 definitions of crowdsourcing systems were found and categorized into four perspectives: the organizational, the technical, the functional, and the human-centric. In the second part of the results, the author derived and presented com-ponents and functions that are implemented in a crowdsourcing system.

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  • 1. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. InformationsmanagementComponents and Functions ofCrowdsourcing Systems A Systematic Literature ReviewLars HetmankDresden, 27.02.2013

2. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. SchoopShort Vita Dipl.-Wirt.-Inf. Lars Hetmank, TU Dresden Research interests:Information and Knowledge ManagementSemantic Web and Linked DataCrowdsourcing Affiliations:Manifesto for a Standard on Knowledge Exchange in Social Knowledge Management EnvironmentsKnowledge Research Center (KRC) e.V. Dresden28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing SystemsSlide 2 / 13 3. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. SchoopMotivationPractical relevance: development of a crowdsourcing system (CSS) and its integration into existing IT infrastructure is risky, cost-intensive, and time-consuming, structured development process requiredTheoretical relevance: various theoretical contribution in the area ofcrowdsourcing however, little has been investigated to define acrowdsourcing system and its technical designaspects precisely2/28/2013Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing SystemsSlide 3 / 13 4. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. SchoopMethod: Systematic Literature ReviewResearch Questions (RQs):RQ1: How and in which detail are CSSs defined in current research literature? What design aspects do they cover?RQ2: What type of components and functions of a CSS can be conceptualized?2/28/2013Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing SystemsSlide 4 / 13 5. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. SchoopSearch Strategy #1 Population: peer-reviewed conference proceedingsand journal papers in English since 2006;dissertations, newspaper articles, unpublished worksor non-scientific articles were not considered Search Resources: ACM Digital Library, Ebscohost(Academic Search Complete and Business SourceComplete), Emerald, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, SageJournals, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and Wiley Search Terms: crowdsourcing system, crowdsourcingapplication, and crowdsourcing platform (in singularand plural)2/28/2013Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing SystemsSlide 5 / 13 6. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. SchoopSearch Strategy #2 Inclusion criteria: define or at least propose a description of what CSSs are(RQ 1) address design issues of CSSs (RQ 2) or classify or give an overview of CSSs (RQ 2). Exclusion criteria: use CSSs for evaluation purposes but do not address designissues2/28/2013Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing SystemsSlide 6 / 13 7. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. SchoopConduct SearchStep 1: a) review the abstract, introduction, and conclusionb) check inclusion and exclusion criteriac) label publication and research type Relevant studies = 72Publication type Research typeStep 2: a) read article, find and record the definitions of CSSb) set keyword for each article to identify components and functions of CSSs2/28/2013Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing SystemsSlide 7 / 13 8. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. Schoop Results: Crowdsourcing System Definitions(RQ1) 17 definitions or descriptions of the term crowdsourcingsystem, application, or platform vary in detail and none of them covers all of the fourderived perspectivesCrowdsourcing Platform is a trusted broker ensuring that providerssuccessfully complete the task requests and that requestors pay for thecharges. Crowdsourcing Platform issues authentication credentials forrequestors and providers when they join the platform, stores details aboutskill-set, history of completed requests, handles charging andpayments, and manages platform misuse. Crowdsourcing platform canexecute crowdsourcing requests in a number of different modes, by advertisingthem on the marketplace, allowing providers to bid for them, or in the form ofa competition, where requestor identifies criteria to be used for selection of thewinning submission. Crowdsourcing platform may further allow requestors andproviders to team-up. (Vukovic, 2009) 28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing SystemsSlide 8 / 13 9. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. SchoopPerspectives iv alc t on mediator, detailed actions epr spepe t ipers iza marketplace,performed to dataoc ccrowd rpe a n es tive interface, or objects or users g s trusted brokeror brokercrowdsourcingprocess requesterCrowd- sourcing user interface System algorithmhistory tracking standardization payment mechanism workow supportiv icct ntrte rsp socialpee authenticationc h ecpe ers n- cinteraction ni tivAPIs ca epe a software human m l components, hu brainpower and technical functions, collective or data objectsintelligencePerspectives of crowdsourcing systems (source: own illustration)28.02.2013Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing Systems Slide 9 / 13 10. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. SchoopResults: Components and Functions (RQ 2)Components and functions of crowdsourcing systems (source: own illustration)28.02.2013Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing SystemsSlide 10 / 13 11. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. SchoopConclusion and Next Steps development of an integrated CSS definition overview of reusable software componentsand functions may be used as a checklist dependencies between the elements are notwell represented designing a semantic model to supportknowledge-intensive crowdsourcingactivities28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing SystemsSlide 11 / 13 12. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. SchoopReferences(1)Kitchenham, B.: Guidelines for performing Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering. (2007).(2)Kitchenham, B., Pearl Brereton, O., Budgen, D., Turner, M., Bailey, J.,Linkman, S.: Systematic literature reviews in software engineering A systematic literature review. Information and Software Technology. 51, 715 (2009).(3)Brereton, P., Kitchenham, B. a., Budgen, D., Turner, M., Khalil, M.: Lessons from applying the systematic literature review process within the software engineering domain. Journal of Systems and Software. 80, 571583 (2007).(4)Wieringa, R., Maiden, N., Mead, N., Rolland, C.: Requirements engineering paper classification and evaluation criteria: a proposal and a discussion. Requirements Engineering. 11, 102 107 (2006).(5)Bortz, J., Dring, N.: Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation fr Human- und Sozialwissenschaftler. Springer, Heidelberg (2009). http://larshetmank.com/documents/wi2013_css_concept_map.pdf28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing SystemsSlide 12 / 13 13. Fakultt Wirtschaftswissenschaften | Lehrstuhl fr Wirtschaftsinformatik, insbes. Informationsmanagement | Prof. SchoopContactEmail: lars@hetmank.deTwitter: https://twitter.com/larshetmank28.02.2013 Components and Functions of Crowdsourcing SystemsSlide 13 / 13