CNC Basics

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  • CNC Basics MTS TeachWare Students Book

    MTS Mathematisch Technische Software-Entwicklung GmbH Kaiserin-Augusta-Allee 101 D-10553 Berlin Phone: +49 / 30 / 349 960 - 0 Fax: +49 / 30 / 349 960 -25 World Wide Web: http://www.mts-cnc.com email: mts@mts-cnc.com

  • CNC-Basics

    MTS TeachWare Students Book

    MTS Mathematisch Technische Software-Entwicklung GmbH

    Kaiserin-Augusta-Allee 101 D-10553 Berlin

    Phone: +49 / 30 / 349 960 - 0

    Fax: +49 / 30 / 349 960 - 25

    eMail: mts@mts-cnc.com

    World Wide Web: http://www.mts-cnc.com

    Created by BK & BM, 2005.

  • All rights reserved, including photomechanical reproduction and storage on electric media

  • Contents

    Introduction into CNC Technology .................................................................................. 9

    1.1 History and Development of CNC Technology ................................................................................9 From conventional machine tool to Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) ..............................9

    1.2 Conventional vs. CNC Machine Tool .............................................................................................11 Machine Structure ..........................................................................................................................11 Function..........................................................................................................................................11 Productivity .....................................................................................................................................12

    1.3 Characteristics of modern CNC machine tools ..............................................................................13 Controllable feed and rotation axis.................................................................................................13 Path measuring systems ................................................................................................................15 Main drive and work spindle...........................................................................................................17 Work part clamping devices ...........................................................................................................17 Tool change facilities ......................................................................................................................18 Security precautions on CNC machine tools..................................................................................19

    Control test CNC Basics.........................................................................................................................21

    Basic Geometry for CNC Machining .............................................................................. 23

    2.1 Coordinate systems on CNC machine tools ..................................................................................23 Types of coordinate systems..........................................................................................................23 Cartesian coordinate system..........................................................................................................23

    CNC-Exercise ...........................................................................................................................................28 Feed and Turning Axes on CNC Machines....................................................................................31

    CNC-Demo........................................................................................................................ 34

    CNC milling ...............................................................................................................................................34 CNC turning ..............................................................................................................................................35 2.2 NC Mathematics .............................................................................................................................36

    Basics of coordinate point calculations ..........................................................................................36 Calculation of NC coordinates........................................................................................................39

    2.3 Zero and reference points on CNC machine tools.........................................................................41 Types of zero and reference points................................................................................................41 Setting the work part zero point W on a CNC lathe .......................................................................44 Setting the work part zero point W on a CNC milling machine ......................................................45

    CNC exercise............................................................................................................................................47 2.4 Numeric Controls on CNC Machine Tools .....................................................................................53

    Control chain and control loop........................................................................................................53 CNC Control ...................................................................................................................................53 Types of CNC controls ...................................................................................................................56 DNC operation................................................................................................................................60

    2.5 Tool Compensations for CNC Machining.......................................................................................62

  • Inhalt

    Using tool compensation values.................................................................................................... 62 Tool length compensation for milling and turning.......................................................................... 62 Tool radius compensations............................................................................................................ 63 Tool measuring and adjusting with an adjusting device................................................................ 69 Tool measuring and setup using the CNC machine...................................................................... 71

    2.6 Path Measuring Systems............................................................................................................... 75 Infeeds, position control and position adjustment of the NC axis.................................................. 75 Path measuring.............................................................................................................................. 75

    CNC exercise ........................................................................................................................................... 77

    Control test Basic Geometry .......................................................................................83

    3 Technological Basics for CNC Machining...............................................................85

    3.1 CNC tool systems for turning and milling ...................................................................................... 85 Tool carriers ................................................................................................................................... 85 Tool holder ..................................................................................................................................... 85 Tungsten carbide indexable inserts............................................................................................... 86

    3.2 Structure and use of lathe tools for CNC machining ..................................................................... 87 Types of lathe tools and the corresponding ISO designation........................................................ 87 Cutting materials ............................................................................................................................ 88 Cutting edge geometry .................................................................................................................. 90 Abrasion and cutting edge............................................................................................................. 91 Cutting value .................................................................................................................................. 92 Examples: Calculating technological values for CNC machining.................................................. 94

    3.3 Structure and application of milling tools for CNC machining ....................................................... 95 Milling and milling operations......................................................................................................... 95 Types of milling tools ..................................................................................................................... 97 Cutting edge materials................................................................................................................... 99 Cutting geometry ......................................................................................................................... 100 Cutting values .............................................................................................................................. 102 Calculation examples of technological values for CNC machining ............