Wind Energy Ethiopia

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Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH

Wind Energy Programme TERNAPN: 97.2019.4-001.09

Site Selection Report Ethiopia

April 2005

Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH Dag-Hammarskjld-Weg 1-5 65 760 Eschborn P.O. Box 51 80 65 726 Eschborn

Wind Energy Programme TERNA Tel. +49 (0) 6196/79-1760 Fax +49 (0) 6196/79-1745 internet: http://www.gtz.de/wind e-mail: jasper.abramowski@gtz.de

gtz Wind Energy Programme TERNA - Ethiopia

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Wind Energy Programme TERNAPN: 97.2019.4-001.09

Site Selection Report Ethiopia

April 2005

Dipl.-Ing. Benjamin Jargstorf Hinter dem Chor 8 23 966 Wismar Tel. +49 (0)3841 - 404 20 Fax +49 (0)3841 - 404 22 e-mail: benjamin@factor-4.com

Factor 4 Energy Projects GmbHR - TERNA Ethiopia Site Selection - Publication.doc * 01/06/2005

gtz Wind Energy Programme TERNA Ethiopia

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Table of ContentsTable of Contents ............................................................................................................................. III List of Abbreviations .......................................................................................................................... V Acknowledgment................................................................................................................................ V Summary of Findings ...................................................................................................................... VII Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse.....................................................................................................IX 1. Basics of Site Selection.................................................................................................................1 1.1 Wind Data for Ethiopia ........................................................................................................ 11.1.1 1.1.2 Meteorological Data.....................................................................................................................................1 Other Wind Data...........................................................................................................................................1 Linear Flow Models (WAsP) .....................................................................................................................2 Meso-scale Models.......................................................................................................................................3 Overview........................................................................................................................................................6 Pragmatic or Reduction Approach............................................................................................................6 Basics..............................................................................................................................................................8 Mountain Winds...........................................................................................................................................9 Data Logger...................................................................................................................................................9 Measuring Towers......................................................................................................................................10 Preparation of Site Selection Mission.....................................................................................................10 Site Selection Mission...............................................................................................................................10 Training and Capacity Building...............................................................................................................11

1.2

Wind Atlas Models .............................................................................................................. 21.2.1 1.2.2

1.3

Other Approaches................................................................................................................ 61.3.1 1.3.2

1.4

Local/Regional Wind Speed Amplification ........................................................................... 81.4.1 1.4.2

1.5

Wind Measuring Campaign.................................................................................................. 91.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5

2.

Site Selection .............................................................................................................................13 2.1 Search Areas..................................................................................................................... 132.1.1 2.1.2 Why Search Areas?....................................................................................................................................13 Are the Search Areas Representative?....................................................................................................14 Search Area 1 (Mekelle)............................................................................................................................14 Search Area 2 (Gonder Bahir Dar).......................................................................................................15 Search Area 3 (Dire Dawa Harar) ........................................................................................................19 Search Area 4 (Addis Ababa Nazareth - Awassa).............................................................................20

2.2

Selected Sites.................................................................................................................... 142.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4

2.3 2.3 3.

Summary of Site Selection................................................................................................. 22 Summary of Site Selection................................................................................................. 22

First Measuring Results.............................................................................................................27 3.1 Average Wind Speeds........................................................................................................ 27 3.2 Frequency Distribution ...................................................................................................... 28 Recommendations .....................................................................................................................29 4.1 Data Retrieval................................................................................................................... 29 4.2 Preparation of Next Mission............................................................................................... 29

4.

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Site Selection Report gtz

AnnexesAnnex 1: Annex 2: Annex 3: Terms of Reference of the Consultant European Wind Atlas, WAsP Short Description Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA UNEP)

Annex 4: Technical Specifications of Data Loggers Annex 5: 30 m Measuring Tower from EREDPC /Modifications Proposed for a 40 m Tower Annex 6: Preparations of Site Selection Mission (Recommendations of Consultant) Annex 7: Situation at the Start of the Site Selection Mission (Memo) Annex 8: Guidelines for Data Retrieval Annex 9: Remaining Works

gtz Wind Energy Programme TERNA Ethiopia

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List of Abbreviations3D a.g.l. AAU ADA Ah BMZ CD DNS EEPCo GEF GIGO GmbH GTZ h.v. KAMM km kV LES m/s MW Sida SWERA TERNA UNEP WAsP WWEC three dimensional above ground level Addis Ababa University Austrian Development Agency Ampere hours Bundesministerium fr Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit (German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation) compact disk direct numerical simulation Ethiopian Electric Power Company Gobal Environment Facility Garbage in Garbage out Gesellschaft mit beschrnkter Haftung (limited company) Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH high voltage Karlsruhe Atmospheric Meso-scale Modell kilometer kilo Volt large Eddy Simulation meters per second Mega Watt Swedish International Development Cooperation Solar and Wind Energy Assessment Technical Expertise of ReNewable Energy Applications United Nations Environmental Programme Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program World Wind Energy Conference

AcknowledgmentThe selection of suitable wind sites in such a large area in such a short time would be impossible without the dedicated support of EEPCos Coal and Wind Energy Team, headed by Ato Tarekegn Kelemu. I want to thank them and all the other EEPCo co-workers from the regional offices for their help during preparation and in the field, where they had to go to great lengths to keep our ambitious time frame. However, any errors and omissions in presenting the results of the site selection mission in this report are mine. Benjamin Jargstorf

gtz Wind Energy Programme TERNA Ethiopia

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Summary of Findings

In October 2003, EEPCo Ethiopian Electric Power Company filed an application for co-operation within the wind energy programme TERNA Technical Expertise of ReNewable Energy Applications. This programme is executed by Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ GmbH on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation (Bundesministerium fr Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit BMZ).

The major findings of this mission can be summed up: 1. Employing a reduction approach for site selection in which all areas not considered highly suitable as wind park location are excluded, the mission focussed on four primary search areas.

2. In each area, possible wind