Wind Barriers - Administrative and grid access barriers to wind power

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Based on a survey of over 200 recent wind energy projects from across the EU, this report analyses the administrative and electricity grid-related barriers to wind power development. It compares the situation in the different European countries, and recommends ways to improve and speed up the development of wind energy in each one (July 2010).

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  • 1. WindBarriersAdministrative and grid access barriers to wind powerJuly 2010

2. Grant agreement number: IEE/07/513/SI2.499556Duration: December 2008 November 2010Co-ordinator: European Wind Energy Association asbl/vzw (EWEA)Cover picture: EcotecniaProject partners:Asociacin Empresarial Elica (AEE)DONG Energy A/SAustrian Wind Power GmbHFraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Frderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. (Fraunhofer)Iberdrola Renovables S.A.Magyar Szlenergia Trsasg (HWEA)Polskie Stowarzyszenie Energetyki Wiatrowej (PWEA)Vindmlleindustrien (DWIA)Supported by:The sole responsibility for the content of this document lies with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect theopinion of the European Communities. The European Commission is not responsible for any use that may bemade of the information contained herein. 3. WindBarriersAdministrative and grid access barriers to wind powerJuly 2010 4. Photo: RES 2 July 2010 5. ContentsExecutive summary................................................................................................................................... 6Chapter 2: Project methodology. ............................................................................................................. 14.Chapter 3: Analysis of barriers in administrative procedures..................................................................... 20.3.1 Generic model of the permitting process........................................................................................ 21 .3.2 Barriers to administrative procedures............................................................................................. 243.3 A quick look at offshore. ............................................................................................................... 32.3.4 Recommendations........................................................................................................................ 34Chapter 4: Analysis of barriers to grid connection. ................................................................................... 38.4.1 Generic model of the grid connection process................................................................................. 394.2 Barriers to grid connection. ........................................................................................................... 42 . 4.3 A quick look at offshore. ............................................................................................................... 50 . 4.4 Recommendations........................................................................................................................ 51Chapter 5: Market-based analysis............................................................................................................ 56 5.1 Types of market............................................................................................................................ 57 5.2 Analysis per type of market. .......................................................................................................... 59. 5.3 Regional analysis.......................................................................................................................... 68Chapter 6: Country factsheets................................................................................................................. 74 6.1 Readers guide to the country factsheets........................................................................................ 75 6.2 Factsheets................................................................................................................................... 76Appendix. ............................................................................................................................................. 145. Windbarriers project partners. ........................................................................................................... 145.Bibliography.......................................................................................................................................... 146WindBarriers - Administrative and grid access barriers to wind power 3 6. PRINCIPAL AUTHORS:Alberto Cea, Asociacin Empresarial Elica (AEE)Dorina Iuga, European Wind Energy Association (EWEA)Emilien Simonot, Asociacin Empresarial Elica (AEE)Nicolas Fichaux, European Wind Energy Association (EWEA)Sharon Wokke, European Wind Energy Association (EWEA)Sune Strm, Vindmlleindustrien (DWIA)ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:The authors wish to thank everyone who contributed to drafting and producing this report.In particular we would like to gratefully acknowledge the following persons:Contributors:Benjamin Pfluger, Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Frderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. (Fraunhofer)Wendelin Macht, Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Frderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. (Fraunhofer)Revisers:Julian Scola, European Wind Energy Association (EWEA)Editing:Sarah Azau, European Wind Energy Association (EWEA)Zoe Casey, European Wind Energy Association (EWEA)Special thanks to:EWEAs national wind energy member associations for their important contribution to the project.The developers who replied to the WindBarriers survey.Glria Rodrigues (EWEA) and Jacopo Moccia (EWEA) for their very useful remarks.Design and production by: MegalunaDesign coordinator: Raffaella Bianchin, European Wind Energy Association (EWEA)Published in July 2010Printed on FSC certified paperDisclaimer: The analysis, conclusions and recommendations provided in this publication are based on the answers received ononshore and offshore wind projects from developers in 23 EU countries in the framework of the WindBarriers project. Some of thesamples are too small to be representative and therefore the corresponding recommendations would need to be confirmed on alarger scale.4 July 2010 7. ForewordI am delighted to introduce this first publication fromThe WindBarriers project, which is supported by thethe WindBarriers project. The Directive on the pro-Intelligent Energy Europe programme, is expected tomotion of the use of energy from renewable sources significantly reduce the lead times for the develop-(2009/28/EC) is a pillar of European sustainable ment of new wind projects, and it also has the po-energy policy, and its implementation will require sig-tential to accelerate the development of projects in-nificant efforts from EU member states to reduce ad- volving other renewable energy sources. It will engageministrative and grid access barriers. The WindBarri-with decision makers and help them to benchmarkers project is important because it supports membertheir performance using an agreed monitoring meth-states in this implementation process by providing odology.a clear and detailed picture of the challenges beingfaced across the EU, as well as indicating some of the WindBarriers has the potential to make an importantways these challenges can be overcome. contribution to accelerating the growth of renewable energy markets across the EU, and to implementingWindBarriers analyses both the administrative andour common European vision of a more sustainablegrid access processes in the different member states future.and regions, and compares them using transparentand objective criteria. This will help to highlight bestpractices, as well as to identify potential bottlenecks.William GillettHead of Unit Renewable EnergyEuropean CommissionExecutive Agency for Competiveness and Innovation (EACI)WindBarriers - Administrative and grid access barriers to wind power 5 8. xxxPhoto: GehringExecutive summary6 July 2010 9. Introduction Questions were asked on a set of potential barriers referred to as indicators - allowing information to beOn 30 June 2009, the European Commission adopted gathered on the administrative and grid obstacles ina template setting out the minimum requirements for23 countries of the EU. The results from the indicatorsthe National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs), can be compared from country to country, giving an in-as required by Directive 2009/28/EC of the Europeandication of the implementation of the 2001 and 2009Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 (2009 EU directives. The results are accompanied by a setRenewable Energy Directive). of recommendations on how to improve administrative and grid access procedures in the EU-27 in order toThe NREAPs, which are to be provided to the European help each EU member state reach its binding target, asCommission by June 2010, are national roadmaps ofdescribed in Table 1.1.each countrys expected path to its binding renewableenergy target for 2020. Each NREAP is to set out thecountrys expected renewable energy contribution, both Administrative procedures andin terms of capacity to be installed (MW) and of energyproduction (MWh), for each of the renewable energy corresponding barrierstechnologies mentioned in the directive from 2010 to2020. Moreover, each member state (MS) has to pro- Project developers need to obtain a building permit invide an estimate of its gross final energy consumption order to install a wind farm. This goes for the grid con-from all types of energy (both renewable and non-renew-nection as well. The total time taken to get the buildingable), for each year between 2010 and 2020, for threeconsent and grid connection permits is called the to-sectors: heating/cooling, electricity and transport. The tal lead time of a wind farm. Based on the WindBar-NREAPs will also include information on all policies and riers survey, the average total lead time in the EU issupport schemes to promote renewable energy in that54.8 months for onshore and 32 months for offshore.country. Reasons for the long lead times vary from country to country, but they are often related to Environmen-The WindBarriers project seeks to build a reliable meth- tal Impact Assessment (EIA) restrictions and/or gridodology to obtain concise information on the adminis-con